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The practice in Poland is presented by Kasprzak Increasing the amount of additional equity that we will have to seek in the future will further dilute those investors participating in this Offering.
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Given our limited operating history and existing losses, there can be no assurance that additional financing will be available, or, if available, that the terms will be acceptable to us. Lack of additional funding could force us to curtail substantially our growth plans.
Furthermore, the issuance by us of any additional securities pursuant to any future fundrais ing activities undertaken by us would dilute the ownership of existing shareholders and may reduce the price of our Shares. Our Employees, Executive Officers, Directors And Insider Shareholders Beneficially Own Or Control A Substantial Portion Of Our Outstanding Shares Our employees, executive officers, directors and insider shareholders beneficially own or control a substantial portion of our outstanding stock which may limit your ability and the ability of our other shareholders, whether acting alone or together, to propose or direct the management or overall direction of our company.
Additionally, this concentration of ownership could discourage or prevent a potential takeover of our Company that might otherwise result in an investor receiving a premium over the market price for his shares.
The majority of our currently outstanding shares of stock is beneficially owned and controlled by a group of insiders, including our employees, dir ectors, executive officers and inside shareholders. Accordingly, our employees, directors, executive officers and insider shareholders may have the power to control the election of our directors and the approval of actions for which the approval of our shareholders is required. If you acquire our Shares, you will have no effective voice in the management of our Company.
Such concentrated control of our Company may adversely affect the price of our Shares. Our principal shareholders may be able to control matters requiring approval by our shareholders, including the election of directors, mergers or other business combinations.
Such concentrated control may also make it difficult for our shareholders to receive a premium for their shares in the event that we merge with a third party or enter into different transactions which require shareholder approval. These provisions could also limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for our Shares.
Further, the Company may not be able to generate significant revenues in the future. In addition, the Company expects to incur substantial operating expenses in order to fund the expansion of the Company's business. As a result, The Company expects to continue to experience substantial negative cash flow for at least the foreseeable future and cannot predict when, or even if, the Company might become profitable.
The Company's projected growth will place a significant strain on the Company's administrative, operational and financial resources. If the Company is unable to successfully manage the Company's future growth, establish and continue to upgrade the Company's operating and financial control systems, recruit and hire necessary personnel or effectively manage unexpected expansion difficulties, the Company's financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
While the Company uses reasonable efforts to protect these trade secrets, the Company cannot assure that its employees, consultants, contractors or advisors will not, unintentionally or willfully, disclose the Company's trade secrets to 18 competitors or other third parties. In addition, courts outside the United States are sometimes less willing to protect trade secrets.
Moreover, the Company's competitors may independently develop equivalent knowledge, methods and know-how. If the Company is unable to defend the Company's trade secrets from others use, or if the Company's competitors develop equivalent knowledge, it could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business.
Any infringement of the Company's proprietary rights could result in significant litigation costs, and any failure to adequately protect the Company's proprietary rights could result in the Company's competitors offering similar products, potentially resulting in loss of a competitive advantage and decreased revenue.
Existing patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws afford only limited protection. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect the Company's proprietary rights to the same extent as do the laws of the United States. Therefore, the Company may not be able to protect the Company's proprietary rights against unauthorized third-party use.
Enforcing a claim that a third party illegally obtained and is using the Company's trade secrets could be expensive and time consuming, and the outcome of such a claim is unpredictable. Litigation may be necessary in the future to enforce the Company's intellectual property rights, to protect the Company's trade secrets or to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others. This litigation could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could materially adversely affect the Company's future operating results.
The Company has entered into an "IP Sale, Transfer and Assignment Agreement", dated as of January 1, , in which VGA has sold, transferred and assigned all of its rights, title and interest in certain Assigned Property as defined in that agreement.
There is no guarantee that the Company's future revenues and profits from using that Intellectual Property will exceed the purchase price which it paid. Furthermore, the Note to VGA is secured by all of the Company's assets including the Intellectual Property, and these assets can be foreclosed on by VGA if the Note is not fully paid including interest per the terms of that Note.
Accordingly, the Company's initial business model may not be successful and may need to be changed. The Company's ability to generate significant revenues will depend, in large part, on the Company's ability to successfully market the Company's products to potential users who may not be convinced of the need for the Company's products and services or who may be reluctant to rely upon third parties to develop and provide these products.
The Company intends to continue to develop the Company's business model as the Company's market continues to evolve. The Company also believes that the importance of brand recognition will increase due to the relatively low barriers to entry in the Company's market. Maintaining and enhancing the Company's brand awareness may require the Company to spend increasing amounts of money on, and devote greater resources to, advertising, marketing and other brand-building efforts, and these investments may not be successful.
Further, even if these efforts are successful, they may not be cost-effective. If the Company is unable to continuously maintain and enhance the Company's media presence, the Company's market may decrease and the Company may fail to attract advertisers and subscribers, which could in turn result in lost revenues and adversely affect the Company's business and financial results.
The Company Needs to Increase Brand Awareness Due to a variety of factors, the Company's opportunity to achieve and maintain a significant market share may be limited. Developing and maintaining awareness of the Company's brand name, among other factors, is critical.
Further, the importance of brand recognition will increase as competition in the Company's market increases. Successfully promoting and positioning the Company's brand, products and services will depend largely on the effectiveness of the Company's marketing efforts. Therefore, the Company may need to increase the Company's financial commitment to creating and maintaining brand awareness. If the Company fails to successfully promote the Company's brand name or if the Company incurs significant expenses promoting and maintaining the Company's brand name, it would have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations.
The Company's ability to compete depends, in part, upon a number of factors outside the Company's control, including the ability of the Company's competitors to develop alternatives that are superior. If the Company fails to successfully compete in its markets, or if the Company incurs significant expenses in order to compete, it would have a material adverse effect on the Company's results of operations.
Encryption software and the other technologies used to provide security for storage, processing and transmission of confidential customer and other informa tion may not be effective to protect against data security breaches by third parties.
The risk 20 of unauthorized circumvention of such security measures has been heightened by advances in computer capabilities and the increasing sophistication of hackers. Improper access to the Company's or these third parties' systems or databases could result in the theft, publication, deletion or modification of confidential customer and other information.
A data security breach of the systems on which sensitive account information are stored could lead to fraudulent activity involving the Company's products and services, reputational damage, and claims or regulatory actions against us. If the Company is sued in connection with any data security breach, the Company could be involved in protracted and costly litigation.
These third-party facilities require uninterrupted access to the Internet. If the operation of the servers is interrupted for any reason, including natural disaster, financial insolvency of a third-party provider, or malicious electronic intrusion into the data center, its business would be significantly damaged.
As has occurred with many Internet-based businesses, the Company may be subject to "denial-of-service" attacks in which unknown individuals bombard its computer servers with requests for data, thereby degrading the servers' performance. The Company cannot be certain it will be successful in quickly identifying and neutralizing these attacks. If either a third-party facility failed, or the Company's ability to access the Internet was interfered with because of the fa ilure of Internet equipment in general or if the Company becomes subject to malicious attacks of computer intruders, its business and operating results will be materially adversely affected.
Misconduct by employees could include intentional failures to comply with laws or regulations, provide accurate information to regulators, comply with applicable standards, report financial information or data accurately or disclose unauthorized activities to the Company. In particular, sales, marketing and business arrangements are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, misconduct, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices.
These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements.
Employee misconduct could also involve improper or illegal activities which could result in regulatory sanctions and serious harm to the Company's reputation. Limitation On Director Liability 21 The Company may provide for the indemnification of directors to the fullest extent permitted by law and, to the extent permitted by such law, eliminate or limit the personal liability of directors to the Company and its shareholders for monetary damages for certain breaches of fiduciary duty.
Such indemnification may be available for liabilities arising in connection with this Offering. Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers or persons controlling the Company pursuant to the foregoing provisions, the Company has been informed that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.
Inability to Maintain and Enhance Product Image Could Affect The Company It is important that the Company maintains and enhances the image of its existing and new products and services.
The image and reputation of the Company's products may be impacted for various reasons including litigation, complaints from regulatory bodies resulting from quality failure, illness or other health concerns.
Such concerns, even when unsubstantiated, could be harmful to the Company's image and the reputation of its products. From time to time, the Company may receive complaints from customers regarding products purchased from the Company. The Company may in the future receive correspondence from customers requesting reimbursement.
Certain dissatisfied customers may threaten legal action against the Company if no reimbursement is made. The Company may become subject to product liability lawsuits from customers alleging injury because of a purported defect in products or services sold by the Company, claiming substantial damages and demanding payments from the Company.
The Company is in the chain of title when it manufactures, supplies or distributes products, and therefore is subject to the risk of being held legally responsible for them. Any negative publicity generated as a result of customer complaints about the Company's products could damage the Company's reputation and diminish the value of the Company's brand, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, results of operations, and financial condition, as well as your investment.
It is possible that recessionary pressures and other economic factors such as declining incomes, future potential rising interest rates, higher unemployment and tax increases may decrease the disposable income that customers have available to spend on products and services like those of the Company and may adversely affect customers' confidence and willingness to spend.
Risks Relating to This Offering and Investment The Company May Undertake Additional Equity or Debt Financing That May Dilute The Shares In This Offering The Company may undertake further equity or debt financing which may be dilutive to existing shareholders, including you, or result in an issuance of securities whose rights, preferences and privileges are senior to those of existing shareholders, including you, and also reducing the value of shares subscribed for under this Offering.
Investors will be subject to substantial risks involved in an investment in the Company, including the risk of losing their entire investment. If you purchase Shares in this Offering, you will do so without any assurance that the Company will raise enough money to satisfy the full Use Of Proceeds To Issuer which the Company has outlined in this Offering Circular or to meet the Company's working capital needs.
If the maximum Offering amount is not sold, we may need to incur additional debt or raise additional equity in order to finance our operations. Increasing the amount of debt will increase our debt service obligations and make less cash available for distribution to our shareholders.
Increasing the amount of additional equity that we will have to seek in the future will further dilute those investors participating in this Offering. If we fail to hold a closing prior tothe termination date, investor subscriptions will be returned without interest or deduction.
Investors in the securities offered hereby may not have the use of such funds or receive interestthereon pending the completion of the Offering. The payment of dividends on our Shares will depend on earnings, financial condition and other business and economic factors affecting it at such time that management may consider relevant. If we do not pay dividends, our Shares may be less valuable because a return on your investment will only occur if its stock price appreciates.
The Company may not be able to obtain additional financing as needed, on acceptable terms, or at all, which would force the Company to delay its plans for growth and implementation of its strategy which could seriously harm its business, financial condition and results of operations. If the Company needs additional funds, the Company may seek to obtain them primarily through additional equity or debt financings.
Those additional financings could result in dilution to the Company's current shareholders and to you if you invest in this Offering. You may not be able to liquidate your investment for any reason in the near future. There Is No Assurance The Company Will Be Able To Pay Distributions To Shareholders While the Company may choose to pay distributions at some point in the future to its shareholders, there can be no assurance that cash flow and profits will allow such dis tributions to ever be made.
There is No Public Trading Market for the Company's Shares At present, there is no active trading market for the Company's securities and the Company cannot assure that a trading market will develop.
In order to obtain a trading symbol and authorization to have the Company's securities trade publicly, the Company must file an application on Form with, and receive the 24 approval by, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority "FINRA" of which there is no assurance, before active trading of the Company's securities could commence.
Prices for securities traded solely on the Pink Sheets may be difficult to obtain and holders of the Shares and the Company's securities may be unable to resell their securities at or near their original price or at any price. Five solvents and a solvent mixture were tested, and diethyl ether has been retained as a suitable method.
It inhibits, however, subsequent treatment using VMD. The visualisation of fingermarks using VMD on a ferromagnetic-coated surface, on the reverse side of polyethylene film and on foam styrol packing material has proven successful. DFO and ninhydrin Sodhi and Kaur give a historical account of fingermark reagents reacting with amino acids. The review paper by Almog remains a prerequisite reading in this area Interference by the humidification used for ESDA processing and subsequent fingermark development by DFO, ninhydrin, the sequence DFO-ninhydrin and two formulations of 1,2Indanedione has been evaluated Exposure times in the humidification chamber were of 2, 4, 15 and 60 minutes.
For DFO, humidification up to 60 minutes is tolerable. Ninhydrin results in less marks and their quality starts to decline after humidification of over 2 minutes on one type of paper. For 1,2-indanedione, an exposure to humidity for up to 4 minutes is favourable to the mark development.
Longer exposure times have a detrimental effect for the mark quality after treatment. Exposure times of more than two minutes also degrade results obtained by the sequence DFO-ninhydrin.
Optimisation of 1,2-indanedione in HFE and testing of the obtained solution in comparison with DFO has been performed, as has the validation of the reagent Only small differences between this 1,2-indanedione formulation and DFO was observed, exception made of a stronger initial fluorescence of DFO.
This difference is compensated for after a week of storage in the dark. HFE is the solvent 16 yielding the best results. This result is confirmed by others,, One 1,2-indanedione formulation and two DFO formulations in ozone-friendly solvents have been tested, and the results show that HFE is a good even slightly advantageous replacement solvent for DFO.
The reaction of 1,2 indanediones has been also investigated Confirming past experiences, a ninhydrin formulation using hexane as carrier provides good results Both reagents have been tested on various porous surfaces white photocopy paper, newspaper, brown cardboard, white envelopes and yellow stickers. In this study, the sensitivity and efficiency of the reaction is higher for 5-MTN than for ninhydrin, the visual differences under white light are not significant.
After secondary treatment with zinc salt, the fluorescence of latents treated with 5-MTN is higher than for ninhydrin, whereas for the secondary treatment with Cadmium, the reverse is true. The authors propose to use both reagents in parallel. Four side-chain-elongated analogues of 5-methoxyninhydrin, soluble in n-hexane, were tested.
Elongation of the side-chain increases solubility, but decreases detection capability of compounds, 5-ethoxyninhydrin performing equally well as 5-methoxyninhydrin and showing stronger luminescence after zinc complex formation than ninhydrin at room temperature. A study investigating the applicability of complex formation with metal salts of the DFO amino acid adduct has been published Six ninhydrin analogues containing oxygen, sulfur, and selenium substituents at the C-5 position, 5- 4-nitrophenyl ninhydrin, and benzo[f]furoninhydrin giving a strongly luminescent result at room temperature after zinc complexation were evaluated as fingermark development reagents by Kobus and co-workers Good fingermark development was obtained using these reagents, but it was not superior to ninhydrin.
Thermal and Carbonless paper compositions and reactions are presented by Stimac, who also tests a formulation of 1,2-Indanedione to be used on thermal paper A review of methods applicable on thermal paper is proposed by Schwarz, including iodine fuming, silver nitrate, DMAC61, hydrochloric acid64, washing with acetone35,36, dry ninhydrin application,, sublimation of ninhydrin and 2-isononyl-ninhydrin INON or ThermaNin ,, The review points out problems with these reagents costs, sensitivity, dangers of the reagents, time-intensity , and the best reagent considering all the constraints is INON.
As INON liberates ninhydrin in the presence of water and a catalytic amount of acid , the working solution prepared in an apolar solvent is not very durable due to the omnipresence of water.
Schwartz presents the preparation of INON. A comparison between ninhydrin and DFO with or without clearing by Freon and ethyl alcohol, dry ninhydrin and hydrochloric acid showed that dry ninhydrin is the best single method for the development of marks on thermal paper, and a sequence is proposed: Nitric acid is mentioned as an alternative to hydrochloric acid The effect of ninhydrin, physical developer and a bleach enhancer on the physical and chemical examination of documents produced from copiers and printers has been studied All treatments changed the optical properties of inkjet specimens; however, the authors find that it is feasible to 17 examine such documents after ninhydrin treatment, and for documents produced by a photocopier or laser printer, none of the treatments tested hindered a subsequent physical and chemical examination Blood Ortho- and para-phenylenediamine for the enhancement of fingermarks in blood have been investigated Both reagents are effective and less hazardous alternatives to 3,3'diaminobenzidine DAB , particularly on porous surfaces.
They result in orange or purple marks, therefore offering alternative colours to the brown colour of DAB and the light green colour of ABTS. The development of bloody fingermarks on skin using amido black is presented, in the form of a case report, where cyanoacrylate and powder were used before the application of amido black, both methods resulting in no visible marks, whereas amido black resulted in two marks. A report on the results of tests of 15 fluorescent reagents for the development of latent fingermarks in blood is proposed Fingermark detection methods that have direct application to time-resolved imaging techniques are presented by Bouldin Sypro Rose Plus Protein Blot Stain a lanthanide complex , which allows the use of time-resolved imaging, is presented by the same author55 as a potentially universal fingermark reagent.
Almog and coworkers19 present a new fingermark reagent Genipin , that forms a visible, blue compound with amino-acids. The reaction product is also luminescent. Additionally, this reagent is not harmful for laboratory personnel product currently used as a food additive. The development process has, however, not yet been optimised. Another non-toxic fingermark reagent, Rose Bengal, is proposed by Sodhi and Kaur The same group proposed the use of Eosin-blue dye and Phloxine B dye to reveal marks on various types of surfaces, A lanthanide shift reagent tris 6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-2,2-dimethyl-3,5-octanedionato europium III or Eu fod 3 has been investigated for luminescent visualization of latent fingermarks.
The results obtained on paper were inferior to those obtained by DFO. Detection of latent marks on metal surfaces using a scanning Kelvin microprobe is proposed The sublimation of disperse dyes in order to colour plastic tapes except fingermarks that could be present has been tested, with or without prior cyanoacrylate fuming.
The conclusions are that this method provides well-defined fingermarks, and that it should be applied after CA fuming Compressed air for the separation of layers of adhesive tapes by freezing has been proposed and applied successfully. Excellent results judged better than with CA on polymer materials to reveal marks using RTX on various substrates have been obtained by Centorika and Rone A new process for development of fingermarks on metal items is proposed by Bersellini and coworkers Electropolymerisation processes of pyrrole and substituted porphyrins are used.
The method is based on the presence of fatty acids that are contained in fingermarks and act as an insulator. The negatives of the fingermarks are therefore developed. The results presented are preliminary.
Three blueing methods with or without prior CA treatment, CA and basic yellow, and an etching technique have been tested on brass cartridge cases, with fingermarks deposited before or after firing and on unfired cartridges The results show that the moment of deposition, the use of the cartridge, and the material on which the fingermarks are deposited with are more important than the technique used for their development.
The results indicated that none of the light sources tested is uniformly superior to the others To record marks on substrate reflective surfaces, the precious use of coaxial or episcopic lightning has been reminded In a broader sense, the use of digital imaging technology has been discussed McMahon explains a case where digital treatment of fingermark photographs is scrutinized.
The reduction of the interference of background by adding or subtracting images taken under different lighting conditions and showing the same background printing or pattern is explained by Comber92; background subtraction by substitution of the exhibit by an identical object is also described Image treatment by subtraction, fast Fourier transform and contrast adjustment is discussed using examples by Dalrymple and co-workers, and some contrast enhancing techniques are explained by Scarborough and Dziemieszko An image restoration technique based on amplitude and frequency modulation reaction-diffusion is proposed in order to restore defective or contaminated fingermarks for recognition tasks and not for identification purposes Recovery of prints Several methods for obtaining fingerprints from mummified, decomposed or charred fingers are proposed by Kahana and co-workers A method for taking fingerprints from the deceased using soot powder and gelatine lifters is presented Fingermark detection and DNA or biological fluid analysis There is still a great interest in the combined use of DNA and fingermarks as shown in numerous recent cases see for example The use of fingermarks as an indicator of contact is only possible after visualisation, and thus the way to combine detection processes and DNA analysis being from bloody fingermarks or residues left following the bare contact between the friction skin and a surface are extensively tested.
A review on analysis of trace quantities of DNA left by contact and a commentary have been published. Alessandrini and co-workers17 analysed contact DNA from fingermarks left by 11 persons on glass, wood and metal without any prior detection technique. They showed that despite the small quantity of DNA detected 0.
Extraneous DNA was observed, as were locus dropout, spurious alleles and stutters. Almost a third of the profiles obtained however were complete 10 loci and corresponding to the donor.
The authors investigated the influence of touching time, three methods of fingermark development ninhydrin, iodine, and soot , delay between apposition of the fingermark and DNA analysis and the time of day. All samples used for the analysis of mtDNA showed positive results. A study focused on LCN low copy number DNA reports successes obtained on treated powder, iodine, ninhydrin, metal deposition or physical developer fingermarks A laboratory introducing 1,2-indanedione for operational use tested two operational solutions of this reagent with respect to their effect on subsequent DNA profiling The issue here is more the impact of the chemicals on other DNA present on the substrate that is unconnected to the fingerprint apposition e.
The test was done on envelopes, with the stamps being licked by known donors. The envelopes were then treated by one of the reagent solutions and finally STR typing was conducted.
No difference between treated and untreated envelopes was observed. However, a time effect was observed, for six days after 1,2-indanedione treatment, no DNA could be extracted anymore. Grubwieser and coworkers have also investigated the DNA profiling of blood and saliva traces after visualization of fingermarks. Only the last four methods using the airbrush technique were deleterious, but STR profiles could be obtained using the layer technique.
Visualisation using soot or magnetic powder followed by transfer using tape was tested with regards to its impact on subsequent DNA analysis It has been shown that even from tape-archived fingermarks, DNA profiles could be obtained. No deleterious effect on DNA analysis has been highlighted, but a loss of biological material was observed. The importance of the surface on which DNA is deposited is emphasized by a study that tested UV on glass and white light on plastic bags , white, black and magnetic powder on glass , cyanoacrylate and Rhodamine 6G dye or vacuum metal deposition on plastic bags and sticky side powder on tape.
These techniques were shown not to have a deleterious effect on the subsequent DNA analysis of fingermarks, but on paper and aluminium foil no results were obtained, with or without treatment A final note will be on presumptive tests for blood: If LCV is used, it should come before the ninhydrin process. They reported that high doses on radiation required to destroy biological agents such as anthrax are sufficient to have a detrimental on the success of fingermark detection techniques.
General examination of shoe sole marks and chain of custody issues are also treated. Chesapeake Area Shoeprint and Tire track website http: The annual report of the activities of the group have just been published The group is organising annual professional meeting. The meeting in Berlin led to the publication of a volume of papers The German marks group hosted another meeting in Berlin that led to the publication of a volume Individualization process Two Daubert decisions concerning the admissibility of shoeprint examiner testimony have been given7, An interesting study pertaining to the discrimination value of wear patterns on right military boot impressions, acquired after 5 weeks of training, has been published Hara stressed on the need to use high magnification during the examination process to ascertain the nature of the features available on the outsole Katterwee of the BKA took up the challenging task of exploring and guiding as to the choice of an adequate scale of verbal strength of evidence in the area.
That initiative led to a series of letters and papers arguing the pro and cons of various options49,78,80,,,,, Our laboratory took part to this 21 discussion and expressed our views in favour of a reporting scheme based on the likelihood ratio. The community at large showed the willingness to keep a standard posterior scale. We think that the debate will continue. Visualization The testing and comparison of a large number of methods for the enhancement of muddy shoe sole impressions on paper, glass and cotton is reported The particular problem of shoe impressions in snow has been discussed The protection of such marks from the sun in order to avoid melting is mentioned, as is the use of spray paint for heightening contrast and in preparation for casting, and the use of snow print wax.
Finally, casting using dental stone or sulphur is presented. Shor and co-workers propose the use of a hydraulic press for lifting shoe marks on rough or porous surfaces.
Footwear impressions in blood, once treated by leucocrystal violet, can be further enhanced by spectral enhancement. The appropriate absorption and emission wavelengths have been determined The prevalence of glass fragments in shoes and on their outside has been investigated Promising results from digital imaging fusion indicates that issues arising from lighting effects may be overcome in the near future Kennedy and coworkers propose and illustrate the comparison of marks with the shape of the foot of a suspect,, particularly in cases where the shoe is the source of impressions at the crime scene but the link between the shoe and its wearer is questioned, or for the use of socked impressions.
A description of the collection of comparison material, a list of barefoot morphology specialists and an overview of their potential results is given An excellent statistical study on foot morphology considering within and between variability has been published A case report where a toe has been identified has been published.
Berry9 postponed its admission of footmark impression until completion of above research The influence of different weight-bearing conditions on plantar foot shape has been investigated Impressions left from faces on airbags following accidents are currently researched in Japan, The practice in Poland is presented by Kasprzak Critical reviews have been recently published79, In our opinion, the field of earmark identification is at its infancy and would benefit from a structured program of research.
Abbas and Rutty14 published a useful guide to web based material on earprints and concluded also that despite the availability of numerous websites about the uses of the human ear in forensic science, the true value of the ear in the process of forensic identification is still in its embryonic stages.
The recognition process is highly subjective and takes advantage of the extraordinary power of the human eye-brain combination. The field of earprint identification is currently being researched through an important initiative under the umbrella of the European community www. It is a welcome initiative that led to the publication of a review and exploratory study on the intra- and inter-individual variability of ear marks has been proposed Two cases involving earmarks have reached the Court of Appeal in the United Kingdom.
The Court of Appeal11 allowed the admission of earprint evidence but received additional information that emerged more clearly since trial that shed some new light on the strength of the evidence.
Had that evidence been available to the defence at trial, it might have reasonably affected the decision of the jury to convict and hence the conviction was quashed and a new trial was ordered In Dallagher, the Court ruled that earprint evidence was held admissible, leaving the duty of highlighting its limits to the adversarial system itself through a proper voir dire or at trial that decision was confirmed in another recent Appeal case R.
Following the Appeal decision in Dallagher, on demand of the prosecution in preparation of this new trial, subsequent DNA tests were carried out on the lifted ear marks.
The analysis showed a partial non-matching DNA profile, which was immediately interpreted as proving that the earprint was not Dallagher's. That causal relationship was trumpeted in the press and among scientific commentators This led the prosecution to formally drop the case. Mark Dallagher was freed in January after serving 7 years in prison. Kunze6 the Court heard some twenty experts in identification evidence and came to the conclusion that earmark identification was not a field that has gained general acceptance among peers.
The Court ruled that earmark evidence cannot be accepted as scientific evidence under the Frye test. The re-investigation of this case led to the discovery of close neighbours close agreement between earmarks originating from different sources among the potential donors in that case The use of the ear in forensic practice is described more generally by Swift who stressed upon the disputed state of earmark identification.
The following groups for internal and external examination are given: Procedures of casting the external ear in a way that causes minimal distortion have been presented in a medical context, for auricular prostheses.
An interesting article on ear identification in the particular case of an image from a surveillance camera has been published So restricted, our review will then be quite limited. Daubert issues have led the entire firearm and toolmark profession to extensively review and discuss its foundations. The peer review process of their professional journal has been reaffirmed It also restored the ongoing debate regarding the identification criteria and its description, the process being either 1 purely qualitative in the examiners perception; 2 both 23 qualitative and quantitative in the examiners perception or; 3 both qualitative and quantitative through actual recording of runs of consecutively matching striae CMS.
For toolmarks, the case against Ramirez has been an additional catalyst The Supreme Court of Florida rejected testimonies regarding toolmarks on cartilage because in their opinion they did not satisfy rigorous Frye1 standards for reliability. Rosenberry published a perfect guide for examiners to envisage a Daubert hearing The paper gives guidance to the relevant literature and an adequate assessment of proficiency testing results.
A review of firearm and toolmark identification is proposed by Nichols adding 22 references to a previous paper The introduction paper by Miller also constitutes a key contribution to the field, especially for training We also recommend the update to the tool mark index listing the recent references of toolmark papers Nichols also published a full description of CMS theory applied to firearms and toolmarks which is well complemented by the papers by Moran, and Tomasetti who exposed the benefits of CMS in the current climate of stronger scrutiny by judiciary.
A practical example on magazine marks has been published by Moran also Individuality of marks left by screwdrivers and its relationship with manufacturing processes has been given by Lee The study of marks left by consecutively manufactured chisels showed that each chisel produced individual and identifying characteristics No carry-over of features occurred due to the finishing process of the tools. An identification error rate 0. Wounds caused by hacking using machete, cleaver and axe weapons and the characteristics of each weapon type on bone have been investigated Stone published an attempt to apply statistical modelling to the field of toolmarks We applaud the effort but urge the reader to be very critical towards the simplistic statistical model put forward.
That contrasts with the paper by Warniment exploring ways to assess "negative findings" and their influence on the conclusion about the alternative proposition Following comments published in INTERface,, a recent paper tried to bring the community to a Bayesian approach Some skeptical responses followed,, The examination of locks to distinguish between the wear of the original key, the marks left by copied keys and the marks left by a lockpick is explained using a case example by Ryds In the case described, once the marks on the locks had been determined to come from a copied key rather than a lockpick, the original key presenting the marks of the copying process has been found.
The author insists that statements about the unauthorized opening of a lock or cylinder using a copied key should be verified by complementary findings. The restoration of a painted registration number is described Several toolmark casting materials have been assessed by Sester and co-workerin function of ease of application, setting time, cast precision, stability over time, cost and toxicity.
None of the products tested offered advantages in all aspects: A physical model had been proposed to explore penetration of casting material The results highlight the need for precautions to avoid the enclosure of air in order to ensure accuracy. Non-contact laser profilometry has been tested as an alternative to visual examination for extrusion marks in plastic bags43, Pigment bands, surface scratches, fisheyes, arrowheads and extrusion lines were detected.
The reported principal advantage of this method above visual inspection is that the quantitative information on extrusion marks and the comparison algorithm 24 used are more objective than visual inspection. Van Beeste et al. Identification possibilities of marks from working gloves are investigated by Ostrowski, who gives examples of the type of impressions that can be left by the different kinds of working gloves presented, and of fabrication defects that may be visible on impressions. Marks left by computerised milling processes on dies used for example to prepare Ecstasy tablets have also been studied showing their differences but also similarities Very interesting manufacturing features on tabloid newspapers have been presented by Craythorne Some of these features especially the marks left by the tabloid slitter allowed conclusive association between sheets by physical fit.
To handle the problem of tag switch on cattle, Nic Daeid and her colleagues elaborated a damage databases of tags that had been subjected to wear and tear, tags that had been assembled incorrectly and tags that had been separated and then reassembled It was found that the marks found on the abattoir tags differed greatly from the marks found on the separated tags.
However some of the marks found on the separated tags were similar to marks found on the tags that had been assembled incorrectly. Progresses on the development of computer based algorithms to handle toolmarks have been presented both in 2D,, and 3D Advances in computer technology will bring new opportunities to both operationally and within research We would like to draw the attention of the every rich work by Thali and co-workers on 3D-CAD supported photogrammetry techniques applied to various injuries marks on bodies ,, The instruction manual by Brueschweiler and colleagues is also highly relevant here