Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (March 22, – February 6, ) was a of Crispulo Aguinaldo and Trinidad Famy, Emilio Aguinaldo was born into a . , the date Aguinaldo believed to be the true Independence Day. Aguinaldo was of Chinese and Tagalog parentage. He attended San Juan de Letrán College in Manila but left school early to help his mother run the family farm. Emilio Aguinaldo was an independence leader of the Philippines, who Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was the seventh of eight children born to a wealthy . the date of Aguinaldo's declaration of the First Philippine Republic.
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Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines May 19, , and announced renewal of the struggle with Spain. The Filipinos, who declared their independence of Spain on June 12, , proclaimed a provisional republic, of which Aguinaldo was to become president; and in September a revolutionary assembly met and ratified Filipino independence. Relations between the Americans and the Filipinos were unfriendly and grew steadily worse. On January 23, , the Malolos Constitution—by virtue of which the Philippines was declared a republic and which had been approved by the assembly and by Aguinaldo—was proclaimed.
Aguinaldo, who had been president of the provisional government, was elected president. On the night of February 4 the inevitable conflict between the Americans and Filipinos surrounding Manila was precipitated. By the morning of February 5 the Filipinos, who had fought bravely, had been defeated at all points. While the fighting was in progress, Aguinaldo issued a proclamation of war against the United States, which immediately sent reinforcements to the Philippines.
The Filipino government fled northward. In November the Filipinos resorted to guerrilla warfare. Library of Congress, Washington, D. After three years of costly fighting the insurrection was finally brought to an end when, in a daring operation on March 23, , led by Gen. Frederick Funston, Aguinaldo was captured in his secret headquarters at Palanan in northern Luzon. Aguinaldo took an oath of allegiance to the United States, was granted a pension from the U.
In the commonwealth government of the Philippines was established in preparation for independence. In , the Maura Law was passed to reorganize town governments with the aim of making them more effective and autonomous, changing the designation of town head from gobernadorcillo to capitan municipal, effective On January 1, , Aguinaldo was elected town head, becoming the first person to hold the title of capitan municipal of Cavite El Viejo.
Several of Aguinaldo's descendants became prominent political figures in their own right. Philippine revolution Emilio Aguinaldo c. He joined as a lieutenant under Gen. Baldomero Aguinaldo and rose to the rank of general in a few months. The same week that he received his new rank, 30, members of the Katipunan launched an attack against the Spanish colonists.
In , the Philippines erupted in revolt against the Spaniards. Aguinaldo won major victories for the Katipunan in Cavite Province, temporarily driving the Spanish out of the area. However, renewed Spanish military pressure compelled the rebels to restructure their forces in a more cohesive manner.
The insulated fragmentation that had protected the Katipunan's secrecy had outlived its usefulness. By now, the Katipunan had divided into two factions; one, the Magdalo, led by Aguinaldo and based in Kawit, thought that it was time to organize a revolutionary government to replace the Katipunan.
The other, named Magdiwang and led by Bonifacio, opposed this move. On March 22, , Bonifacio presided over the Tejeros Convention in Tejeros, Cavite deep in Baldomero Aguinaldo territory , to elect a revolutionary government in place of the Katipunan.
Away from his power base, Bonifacio unexpectedly lost the leadership to Aguinaldo, and was elected instead to the office of Secretary of the Interior. Even this was questioned by an Aguinaldo supporter, who claimed that Bonifacio did not have the necessary schooling for the job.
Insulted, Bonifacio declared the Convention null and void, and sought to return to his power base in Rizal. Bonifacio was charged, tried, found guilty of treason in absentia , and sentenced to death by a Cavite military tribunal. He and his party were intercepted by Aguinaldo's men in a violent encounter that left Bonifacio mortally wounded. Aguinaldo confirmed the death sentence, and the dying Bonifacio was hauled to the mountains of Maragondon in Cavite, and executed on May 10, , even as Aguinaldo and his forces were retreating in the face of Spanish assault.
Biak-na-Bato In June, Spanish pressure intensified, eventually forcing Aguinaldo's revolutionary government to retreat to the village of Biak-na-Bato in the mountains.
All wars of independence have been obliged to suffer terrible tests! During this three-day battle, the fate of the Revolution hung on whether Aguinaldo and his men would win or lose. A Question of Heroes.
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