Transnational Entrepreneurship and Ghanaians Abroad: What are the Motives? :
After uploading them to her YouTube channel in , Del Rey's videos for the songs " Video Games " and " Blue Jeans " became viral internet sensations,  and she was signed by Stranger Records to release "Video Games" as her debut single. Social relations in this type of business guide the entrepreneurs through specific network of inter-personal ties. Though staunchly opposed by Secretary of State George Shultz and Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger , the plan was authorized by Reagan, who stated that, "We were not trading arms for hostages, nor were we negotiating with terrorists". They take risk to innovate, provide services, employ people and through their experiences and combination of materials; create new products for the market.
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Though several studies have shown that this kind of business is difficult and can be stressful sometimes, yet these entrepreneurs are motivated and the question is; what are the factors that drives the performance of these transnational entrepreneurships? Migration and Entrepreneurial Ventures Migration in this context is defined as the movement of people from one country to another country with the aim of searching for greener pasture.
It normally takes place between countries with similar economic, historic, colonial and cultural ties. Ghanaians migrate to Europe and the USA due to the similar connection that exist between them; in terms of economic, social, history and culture. Littunen [ 23 ] proposed that there are numerous factors that determine entrepreneurial activities but life situations, changes and experiences are very crucial and that is where migration comes to play part.
In Ghana, employment and economic opportunities since has been major challenge to many individuals most especially the youth. This has made travelling abroad the most lucrative business for most Ghanaian youth. Valencia argued that there are pull and push factors that compel individuals to migrate and those factors can be financial, family, personal opportunistic and economical.
This shows that conditions in the country of origin coerce or as, someone might say, motivate individuals to seek for greener pastures.
Research has revealed that most Ghanaians migrate with the aim of coming back home to establish jobs so that there will be no need to search for jobs abroad [ 23 ].
This ambition of many Ghanaians shows there is a positive correlation between migration and entrepreneurial ventures [ 25 ]. Besides, scholars such as Beauchemin and Schoumaker [ 26 ], Hatton and Williamson [ 22 ] stressed that migration is a growing phenomenon on the African continent due to lack of development among the countries on the continent.
Is this true or false? Interestingly, these scholars are not far from the truth because migration or travelling abroad has become the only means for Africans, most especially Ghanaians to better their lives and that of their families.
It is of no surprise that many Ghanaians abroad including the researcher; have sought to invest in new entrepreneurial activities to enter into economic independence. If that is the case, then how large is immigrant companies? Lucas and Morris [ 9 ] opined that immigrants companies most at times are inconsequential, small and most at times, focused on the small-medium enterprises.
However, scholars such as Min and Bozorgmehr [ 27 ], Wong and Ng [ 18 ] disagreed with Lucas and Morris [ 9 ] and argued that it is impossible to consider all immigrants businesses as the same. Another point to be noted when digesting about the correlation between migration and entrepreneurial venture is that many people migrate with aim of getting capital, gaining experiences and skills to venture into business in order to enter into economic independence.
One of the interviewees: McComick and Wahba [ 28 ], Black and Cotalno [ 6 ] agreed that there is a positive correlation between the accumulation of savings and investment in entrepreneurial activities. Contrary to the above, Portes and Sensenbrenner [ 29 ] identified some basic factors that can influence immigrants to enter into transnational economic activities.
They argued that married status, high level of education, male gender, professional experience, certain scope and size of social relations and years of spent abroad, are influential factors for immigrant to venturing into transnational economic activities.
In , Xiaohua and Chrysostome [ 32 ] argued that the intersection between entrepreneurship business and immigration social is the immigrant entrepreneurship. Kivisto and Granovetter [ 33 - 35 ] based their argument on the significance conditions of incorporation in the immigrants for the development of transnational relations. These scholars exposed that difficult conditions of incorporation like discrimination sometimes influence the creation of self-employment through transnational economic activities.
Zhhou and Kim [ 36 ] arguably stressed that the job creation positively affects the social dimension of the people through recognition of immigrants, provision of role models for immigrants, development of vibrant ethnic communities and building of entrepreneurial spirit among the people. According to Nijkamp [ 37 ], high internal locus control, achievement of motivation, participation in social networks and risk-taking tendency are some of the factors that drives Ghanaian migrants to venture into entrepreneurship.
In transnational entrepreneurship, social relations networks are crucial in terms of establishing the business, circulating goods and services, providing accommodation and psychological support as well as continuous improvement of socio-economic information of the two countries. Cassini [ 38 ] stressed that financial capital is not enough to develop a small-firm but issues such as trust and social responsibility are important in developing a small-scale enterprise.
Buane [ 39 ] continued that family and social relations disadvantage entrepreneurs, by increasing unrealistic demands on their resources. Contrary to the above assessment, Steel and Becky believed that such relations provide the individual entrepreneur the intellectual, economic, emotional and spiritual support to do their business.
Transnational entrepreneurs use these social ties to acquire or pass on information, achieve some objects as well as to influence some other people in a desired direction. The significant of social relations in maintaining and promoting small-business activities in Ghana has been noted by scholars such as Mazzucato [ 20 ] and Ley [ 41 ]. Kloosterman and Rath [ 43 ] based his argument on socio-economic embeddedness as a key element when it comes to the interaction between the demand and supply sides of business initiation and its successes.
To him embeddedness is an umbrella of social networks, socio-economic and politico-institutional settings. Granovetter [ 35 ] argued that embeddednesss of socio-economic relations can be grouped into structural embeddedness and relational embeddedness.
The structural embeddedness typology consists of relationship in a broader network and social relations of several individuals [ 31 ].
Scholars such as Granovetter [ 35 ] and Portes; and Sensenbrenner  observed that, in order to sustain and maintain these two kinds of relationships, solidarity must be built between the two partners. This will go a long way to help the transnational entrepreneurs to utilise certain sanctions to enforce trust among them to keep the relationship moving all the time. The entrepreneurs need to have a well-structured connections built on solidarity to define their collective identity.
This identity allows the members of the community to advocate for one another without necessarily knowing each other personally [ 31 ]. Many of the interviewees declared that they have developed a very strong and well-structured relationship with people back in Ghana and they are guided by solidarity. To them, this relational embeddedness is identified by mutual reciprocity and normative expectation in interaction. Entrepreneurs through relational embeddedness can help one another and share their experiences and skills.
The experiences and skills shared among them marks the beginning of their reciprocal interaction [ 29 ]. Faist and Siereking [ 31 ] supported that trust is more important for smallscale business due to the risk of losing significant resources through sometimes misconduct. When there is trust, there will be cooperation. Through trust, the cooperation partners would be able to understand their counterpart actions.
However, both partners are supposed to follow their independent business objectives to make each one autonomous. Faist and Siereking [ 31 ] argued that cooperation is shaped by the need of the partners to create mutual obligation as well as to ensure that both partners are dependent on each other. Faist and Siereking [ 31 ] concluded that if these cooperation partners are able to dispose of the amount of autonomy and the opportunity to control one another, then there would be a symmetric dependency between the cooperating entrepreneurs.
Notwithstanding that, transnational entrepreneurs also have social relations with others who are not part of their business. Many at times, economic actions are determined by social expectations and ties.
If that is the case, then how can transnational entrepreneurs protect themselves from private issues which are not supposed to be closed to their rational business activities? Besides, maintaining a balance between the creation of culture or geographic distance is crucial when it comes to embeddedness in social relations.
In business, either local or international, knowing one another at the upper levels of management is important. I was in college, [and] we went to the Indian reservation. That day I realized that I had only two options: I chose the first option. If it [had] not [worked], I would [have] probably [done] social work in any small town.
It was half-inspired because I didn't have many friends, and I was hoping that I would meet people and fall in love and start a community around me, the way they used to do in the '60s. He is known as a producer with a lot of integrity and who had an interest in making music that wasn't just pop. She began to work in community service. David Kahne, who produced Grant and previous label owner David Nichtern have both stated that Grant bought the rights back from her label, 5 Points, as she wanted it out of circulation to "stifle future opportunities to distribute it—an echo of rumors that the action was part of a calculated strategy.
I was going to Miami quite a lot at the time, speaking a lot of Spanish with my friends from Cuba — Lana Del Rey reminded us of the glamour of the seaside. It sounded gorgeous coming off the tip of the tongue. Born to Die, Paradise, film projects, and Tropico Main articles: After uploading them to her YouTube channel in , Del Rey's videos for the songs " Video Games " and " Blue Jeans " became viral internet sensations,  and she was signed by Stranger Records to release "Video Games" as her debut single.
To be honest, it wasn't going to be the single but people have really responded to it. Del Rey's performance was defended by the evening program's guest host, actor Daniel Radcliffe , despite not having seen her performance. Born to Die was officially released on January 31, , worldwide, and reached number one in 11 countries, though critical reaction was divided.
With the release of her third EP , Paradise , Del Rey spawned her second top 10 album in the United States, debuting at number 10 on the Billboard with 67, copies sold in its first week. After the release of Paradise, Del Rey penned the original song " Young and Beautiful " for the soundtrack of the film adaptation of The Great Gatsby with director, co-writer, and co-producer Baz Luhrmann. Before showing the film, Del Rey told the audience "I really just wanted us all to be together so I could try and visually close out my chapter before I release the new record, Ultraviolence ".
Ultraviolence and Honeymoon Main articles: On January 23, , it was announced that Del Rey would be covering the song " Once Upon a Dream " from the film Sleeping Beauty for the dark fantasy film Maleficent.
The single was released on January The album sold , copies in its first week, worldwide.